What I have come to notice in my time in special education is that we love to be helpful. In fact, we sometimes get a little too enthusiastic in our helpfulness. I saw a tweet today that really drew my attention. This is totally taken out of context, but that is how I read it:
So much of how we “help” people does them so much disservice.
— Dr26.2miles (@Dr24hours) September 26, 2015
If You Love Them, Set Them Free
This struck me because we often hold students back and deny them certain rights by nature of our “helping”. We choose to help people by doing things for them. We choose to help people by telling or dictating to them what they should be thinking or saying. We squash their creativity, we belittle them, and we condescend. In the course of our helping, we are actively holding them back. We are preventing them from growing as people.
The help I am specifically referring to is the provision of special education services, particularly in self-contained classrooms. We often look at our assessments and fear that our students will fail in general education classrooms unless they score 100% correct on every benchmark, and even if they do they must do it quickly and with automaticity. These students have to have perfect behavior, all of the time, even when stressed or when things are difficult. Anxiety and depression have to dissipate. They must show perfect attending, even when the teacher is not speaking and other students are being disruptive. Being a normal kid is not good enough. Perfection or bust!
Inclusion in General Education Full Time Is the Goal
The perspective that students must be perfect in order to be in general education worries me. I have seen the potential in students that other teachers did not. I spoke with the parents about this potential and some were terrified of taking any chances with their child’s education. This is a commendable worry for a parent, but as I see it, moving students into more inclusive placements full time is the goal. In fact, it is something every child is entitled to.
My perspective comes from growing up with an autistic twin brother. Kyle had a host of adaptive functioning problems. Kyle had uncontrollable obsessive and compulsive behaviors. Kyle could be aggressive if he lost his temper. Kyle had a need to pace and stim. Kyle was nonverbal (although he used a computer to communicate). And yet, none of that ever held him back. My parents did not ever let the narrative of a broken little kid enter into the picture when it came to Kyle. And quite frankly, neither did Kyle.
Kyle’s Placement in More Restrictive Environments Prepared Him for Inclusion in General Education
My thought processes always seem to come back to Kyle. When Kyle was little, he needed a lot of help. A preschool that specialized in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) was there to teach him the basics of attending and social skills, as well as how to cope with his urge to become physically aggressive with the teachers for disciplining other students. Elementary and middle school was there to help Kyle learn basic study skills and get the hang of communicating with others using his augmentative communication devices. In high school and post-secondary, Kyle needed training in job skills and to get out into the community. Academically, Kyle didn’t need help. In fact, in his first grade teacher wrote in the notes of Kyle’s IEP something to the effect: Kyle doesn’t test at all, but there is so much in him. We just need to keep teaching him new things and who knows where Kyle will end.
When Kyle was going to enter the fourth grade, the decision was made to hold him back into third grade again. But, he was to continue to receive spelling and math in general education. The rationale was that if he could spell, he could read (Kyle could spell any multi-syllabic term or random word perfectly on the first try). Kyle was held back to repeat the third grade because fourth grade is when school becomes more about abstract and higher-order thinking and Kyle was not quite ready. However, when Kyle reached fifth grade, the decision was made (by Kyle himself…he let mom know what he wanted) that Kyle needed to embrace the challenges of general education. More clearly, Kyle told mom he wanted normal school. So my mother gave him access (she put her foot down and made it happen). Fifth grade was good. Sixth grade was hard, and Kyle really came into his own in seventh grade. It did not matter that Kyle was non-verbal, it did not matter that Kyle was unable to write with a pencil or pen, it did not matter that Kyle walked down the halls with his ears plugged and his backpack and laptop bags swinging loosely off his arms. Kyle was determined to succeed in “normal” school. And he did.
Kyle Had Success Despite the Lack of Support
Interestingly, once Kyle entered the mainstream he never looked back. There was no resource support for him. We would have loved for there to be, but he was not performing at a low enough level to qualify under the discrepancy model (to be fair, he would not have qualified under any model, students with A’s and B’s do not receive resource support services). My mother sat down with Kyle for hours after school to help re-teach and act as a scribe for Kyle’s homework. Kyle got good grades in general education classes. He was happy. He made friends. In short, he thrived. All this was done in the 1980’s and 1990’s, long before we had the support we celebrate for autistic students today. In fact, my mother had to be rather blunt and stubborn with the school district to make sure Kyle had access to general education. It was unprecedented, and in many ways still is to some extent. So, on top of all of his accomplishments, Kyle was a pioneer. He did not let his challenges hold him back and my mother made sure that low academic expectations did not exist to hold Kyle back either.
Often time, what I find is that students that have been in special education classes (self-contained classrooms) since the beginning of their educational career are often closer to accessing the general education curriculum than students that only receive resource services. Specifically, students in resource can be 1.5-2 years behind their peers academically; whereas students in self-contained classrooms can sometimes be at grade level or only 0.5-1 year behind their general education peers. That says to me that those students approximately 1 year behind in their academics need resource services, not special classrooms. Anything more is too restrictive an environment than the students deserve. Even if the student has behavioral challenges to overcome it can often be solved by inclusion in a general education classroom.
Here Are Six Ways That I Can Achieve My Goal of My Students Moving into More Inclusive Settings.
1) I look at the student’s placement scores, irrespective to diagnosis, placement, behavioral history, and social skills
When I see a student is academically successful (within 1-1.5 years of grade level), it means I need to start planning for a paraeducator to assist with any potential behavioral issues in an inclusion setting. Based upon my experience in the resource setting, 1-1.5 years behind grade level is not enough to place a student in a self-contained classroom for academics. If a student tests within those levels, I can act as a resource teacher for them to provide a reteach, but they need to be out in a general education classroom to receive their core instruction.
2) I look at the behavioral history of the student
I usually try to talk with the previous year’s teacher to see what really sticks out in their mind. I have observed that students will have a lot of narratives written in their files as well as IEP goals written focused on behavior that are not at all that prevalent. Then, I get into data collection mode. I break out my Behavioral First Aid Kit, and start collecting data like crazy. If I see it, I write it down.
3) I specifically assess any sensory needs
It is important that I address the sensory needs of the student. These needs can be typical to students on the autism spectrum or sensory integration disorder. The need for fidgets, a pen to twiddle, or thera-putty to help ease the stress for students and can be vitally important for them to function in the general education classroom.
4) I look at the classroom management system and students in general education
I want my kids to succeed. So, I will make sure that my students get access to the teacher with the best management skills and teaching practices possible.
5) After all of these steps… I finally dig into the IEP and memorize their psychological/cognitive profile as well as any diagnoses
This just helps inform me how to better process my notes from my data collection steps. It also helps me identify potential issues that I may have overlooked. I do not do this step earlier because I would rather not bias my data collection.
6) I collect as much data as I can on my student’s performance in the general education classroom
The only difference between this and the earlier data collection step is that I focus on how much support each student needs. Do they need behavioral support? Do they need help with assignments (beyond what their elbow buddy provides)? Do they need a gentle nudge to remain focused? These collect this data daily for two weeks and then I fade back to random ten to fifteen minute data collection period cycled across days weekly and then every other week. These data collection sessions continue until the student is transitioned out of the self-contained classroom and into a general education.
Using a Self-Contained Setting to Determine If a Student Is Ready for General Education Is Doing It Wrong
I feel the more typical method of evaluating behavior in the self-contained classroom, to determine if the students are ready for general education, is often unfair. What I mean by unfair is that oftentimes the students that act out in the special education classroom due to boredom are being deprived the very challenges that they need to better themselves. In this way I feel I am giving students the chance to succeed when presented with a challenge, and I am collecting data that will serve useful to provide strategies the students may need when the going gets tough. I have adopted this approach because it is both fast and efficient. My goal is to get students into the mainstream as fast as possible because the longer they are in an inclusive setting, the more data I can collect and the greater number of strategies I can devise to help them achieve success. Providing too much support with a self-contained placement or even paraeducator support is not helping students achieve independence. Sometimes the best thing to do is let our students fly on their own.
Photo Credit: gem fountain/Flickr