Structural Ableism is a Barrier to Inclusive Classrooms

By Rasheera Dopson


This time last year, I wrote a personal piece entitled “Shh… I can’t hear” about the difficulty I was facing around the hardship of being in graduate school as a deaf and hard of hearing student. Over an 8-month period, I found myself having to advocate for access to accommodations in order to effectively engage in the virtual classroom environment. Although my academic program was compliant in approving the accommodations, the program lacked the empathy in understanding how not having access to closed captions limited my ability to excel academically. The rawness of this piece illustrated my internal struggles as a disabled student advocating for my needs, while also showing how many disabled students because of the COVID-19 pandemic were still silently struggling.


Within the context of the pandemic, a lot of grey areas in my educational journey that I thought had been resolved became problematic. It was my experience in being a graduate student that I realized how deeply structural ableism was embedded into our educational system and how students with disabilities are heirs of these classroom inequities.


In self-identifying as a student with a disability and working within the academic space, I have the unique privilege to add both lived experience and professional observation to this idea and framework of structural ableism. I’ve always liked to mirror the concept of structural ableism to the framework of structural racism—which is a form of racism that is embedded into a system through policy or regulations. Structural ableism works the same way—it serves as a form of ableism that is embedded into an organizational structure or system through policy, law, or regulations.


As a student, I have been able to boldly express what this structural ableism feels like, as well as the many barriers and implicit biases I have personally encountered. However, as a professional, I have wrestled in communicating my firsthand experiences to my colleagues who are often oblivious to the microaggressions people with disabilities face. Oftentimes, these microaggressions and biases are facilitated and manufactured by non-disabled persons who unintentionally hold on to these belief systems due to ignorance. This ignorance is not so much in the form of education but stems from a lack of acumen of the disability experience.


Within traditional settings, disability has been looked upon and constructed from a very limited lens—a service-based and deficient lens that says, “Disability is something that needs to be fixed,” instead of saying, “Disability is a part of the human experience.” Many of us within disability-led spaces are all too familiar with this language and advocate for this belief system to disassociate with the traditional framework of disability. Advocates and allies are consistently pushing back and breaking away from the association of disability from a strictly medical lens and looking to expand disability to a more socially inclusive lens. However, this can be quite difficult when the institutional structure that is set in place to address disability in an academic setting continues to function from a conventional lens.


In looking at the historical overview of how the subbranch of special education came into play, we can look at the federally mandating laws that stemmed from the Brown vs. Board of Education era. From this landmark case, many policies began to fall in place allowing all students within any educational system to have access to a free and public education. Laws such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Elementary and Secondary Education Act—which has since been amended and renamed Every Child Succeeds Act—have provided provision in which states can follow in ensuring equal education. However, although the government has established access for students with disabilities in the classroom, it is often left up to the community or school system to contextualize what that access looks like.


In being a proponent of the IDEA, I fully support the full inclusion of any student within the educational process—however, my advocacy efforts cannot rest at access. Because, coupled with access, many issues students with disabilities face are not strictly related to physical access. Instead, many of the barriers students with disabilities experience are often invisible. Invisible barriers that can make it difficult for a student with a disability to thrive within the educational environment. I believe these invisible barriers are more damaging and long-lasting, and can undo the efforts that the special education system strives to practice and implement.


So, even though classrooms and institutions are mandate