Tomorrow Is Too Long to Wait for Inclusion

Differentiated Instruction: Are We Expecting Too Much?

Differentiated Instruction Are We Expecting Too Much

By Savanna Flakes

There are some people who don’t think that differentiated instruction works. I suppose if you believe that differentiation is a bunch of specific strategies, a prescriptive methodology that all kids have to be doing something different all of the time, or that it is magic that only some teachers can create, then differentiating instruction for a class of diverse learners is impossible.  However, the basic truth is that “differentiation is a sequence of caring thoughts and common sense decisions made by teachers with a student-first orientation” (Adam Hoppe, 2010). What teacher does not naturally put the students first?  Teachers don’t need training on becoming compassionate or a rule book on how to notice students need a variety of learning opportunities. In fact, we even recognize that we need different professional learning opportunities, and we advocate for differentiated professional development.  What teacher doesn’t naturally help a student if they see him or her struggle with a concept and offer another way to solve the problem or express the answer? This is the foundation of differentiation: thinking about what is best for our students. We don’t need research to support that.

To those who say “differentiation has failed,” in essence you are saying that “teaching” has failed.  Differentiation is teaching and effective teaching is differentiated to account for differences in interest, learning style, background knowledge, and skills. The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning, and learning doesn’t happen without differentiation. Differentiation is what makes our career field a distinguished art and science—not everyone can do it.

Some may feel that differentiation will only work if we return to the days when students of similar abilities were grouped together and placed in classes with other students whose learning needs paralleled their own.  Well, the results from that movement are in and they have been devastating. We have failed many students who don’t score high on economically-constructed IQ tests, biased TAG tests, and the hundreds of standardized tests by watering down their curriculum, placing them in less rigorous courses, and tracking them into ability groups such as the “Blue Jays” just because they are not on grade level with peers. Separating and secluding students from their “gifted” counterparts based on lower ability only results in lower expectations and “separate-not-equal” thinking.  The “one size fits all” approach is one variable that has resulted in the school to prison pipeline and the poor performance of students with disabilities and youths who are economically disadvantaged; in fact, ask a student who has dropped out of school why he or she did so.  You will probably hear an answer that resonates: “School didn’t work for me.”  How can one be satisfied with a teacher who does not differentiate when every respectable field differentiates for their constituents?  Would you continue to go to a doctor whose only prescription for every one of their patient’s illnesses, ranging from a headache to lung cancer is Advil?

So rather than continue to address more fallacies in the thought pattern that differentiation is beyond reach, I will make this article meaningful for my audience: teachers.  Specifically, I write to teachers who want to improve in differentiating instruction for the benefit of their students.  Like many others, including Carol Ann Tomlinson (one of our gurus on Differentiation), I suggest starting small with one goal, and then building your repertoire year by year to perfect it. Differentiation is a journey, not a one stop fix or an end point.

DifferentiationThe foundations of differentiation are building a collaborative classroom community, establishing consistent routines, and teaching students to have a Growth versus Fixed Mindset.  For resources on helping students develop a Growth Mindset, check out Carol Dweck’s  Next, during planning, consider your essential questions, objectives, and summative task or assessment.  As you scope out your curriculum unit, consider areas where students usually struggle and/or possible misconceptions that commonly arise with a given concept and skill.  As you plan, think about informal or formal pre-assessments that could provide you with background on what students know so that the lesson is able to support and/or extend students’ learning. In reviewing this information, begin to plan a few ways to teach the concept, possibly using a hands-on approach, visual supports, cooperative learning, and a blended learning component from or  Think about the assessments that will be used, and consider providing students with a choice in how they will demonstrate their mastery on this concept, moving beyond just paper and pencil. At this point, you are differentiating instruction, which just so happens to be good for ALL students.  Check out for hundreds of pre-created learning menus on various subjects and objectives.  Feel free to contact me for helpful advice and resources to start or continue your differentiation journey.

At the end of every opinion on differentiation, we have this fact: We have students who need us as educators to have a growth mindset, to help them believe that intelligence is malleable and to value their contributions to our classroom. We owe it to our students to purposefully plan to account for their uniqueness, and although differentiation is not a panacea to all of the education sector’s dilemmas, consider that the alternative is… nothing.  Is differentiation expecting too much? I don’t think so.

Editor’s Note: This article has been edited to correctly attribute a quote to Adam Hoppe.

Savanna Flakes, EdS has taught a variety of subjects, grades, and learners in Washington DC, Pittsburgh, and Virginia.  She has received numerous honors and awards for her work in education. Savanna is currently an Inclusion Specialist, coaching administrators and teachers on effective inclusive and instructional practices.  Savanna has served as a Professor in the American University School of Education and Health and she presents nationally on topics such as Differentiation, Co-teaching, Universal Design for Learning, and Inclusion. As an Education Consultant, she works with school communities to build teacher leaders and utilize effective instructional practices for students with exceptionalities. For more information visit Inclusion For a Better Future at
The following two tabs change content below.

Guest Blogger

Guest Blogger at Think Inclusive
Would you like to write a guest blog for Think Inclusive? We are looking for articles that promote authentic inclusion from the perspective of educators, self-advocates and parents. Contact Tim at to submit your idea. Thanks!
  • Suzanne Smith-Tucker

    Differentiation is a major concern in education today and is a feature of expert instruction. I feel that it is not
    too much to differentiate. I believe that all students can learn and succeed. Yes, it may be challenging as class sizes increase and teachers become faced with teaching students who are on different academic levels. However, we have to remember that although each student is unique and learns differently, each student is good at something. Therefore, it becomes the teacher’s responsibility to determine the best way for each student to learn.

    • Savanna Flakes

      Thank-you for all of your time and passion for reaching our diverse learners. I know your students are so privileged to have you as their teacher. Thanks for reading and commenting!

  • mathteacherfls

    As a functional life skills teacher of non diploma track students I want them to be included within the school and classes and for them to be successful differentiation is key. They can learn and participate to a degree with their non-disabled peers but they need protocols and supports to do so

    • Savanna Flakes

      I completely agree with you. We see our student’s success and it makes us so excited- these are the our real rewards for our time and effort. Thanks for reading and commenting!

  • Pingback: Inclusion = Differentiation + Literacy | Inclusion Specialist Instructional Zone()

  • Kyle Robinson

    Gotta love when you rip-off someone else’s definition of differentiation (specifically Adam Hoppe, a student of Carol Tomlinson) … and don’t give him (or her, for that matter) credit! And we wonder why plagiarism is so rampant in schools! Teachers (even those with an EdS degree) can’t even give credit where credit is due.

    • Savanna Flakes

      Hi Kyle,

      I just re-read my article and I noticed that I did indeed put quotation marks around a fellow educators great thought “differentiation is a sequence of common sense decisions made with a student-first orientation” but somehow I forgot to also include the author/source within the quotation marks. Thanks for bringing this error to my attention. I was going to insert our expert Tomlinson here, but upon further research came across one of her other brilliant colleagues you mentioned- Adam Hoppe. It would appear that in my much more important work of working with teachers, putting students first, and increasing student achievement, I erroneously failed to complete my APA citation correctly (I have the quotation marks to signal the work is not mine, but mistakenly didn’t include the author). I sent an email to the publisher so we can insert Mr.Hoppes name by this wonderful and important quote. Thanks again for the kind thoughts and all you do for our students. Take care and well wishes.


  • Pingback: Inclusion Is What We Do | Think Inclusive()

Pin It on Pinterest